Type and content of
Type and content of
The amount and composition of human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) of each mother varies from individual to individual, but human milk oligosaccharide is the third largest component of the solids in the milk, following lactose, fat with approximately 5 to 15 grams in a liter of milk. Compared to other animal breast milk, mother’s milk contains at least 100 times more oligosaccharide than milk and there are many differences in its kind. In other words, human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is a key ingredient that differs from other animal milk.
|Oligosaccharide||8||0.03 - 0.06||0.25 - 0.30||0.02 - 0.04|
* Source of data : Milk oligosaccharides: A review. vol 68 International Journal of Dairy Technology
Among human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), fucosylated oligosaccharides are present in breast milk at an unusually high concentration, while not in animal milk, and the most abundant composition is the 2'-O-fucosyllactose (2'-FL).
|HMOCategory (Total %)||Oligosaccharide||mean concentration (range), g/L|
|Lacto-N-fucopentaose(LNFP) Ⅰ||0.122 (0.106~0.145)|
|Lacto-N-fucopentaose(LNFP) Ⅱ+Ⅲ||0.156 (0.120~0.161)|
|Non-pucosylated neutral(42~55%)||Lacto-N-Neotetraose(LNnT)||0.3 (0.17~0.45)|
* Source of data : Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity
Ann Nutr Metab 2016;69(suppl 2):42–51
- The most common ingredient in human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is 2'-FL.
It is known that human milk oligosaccharide varies in its main composition depending on the lactation period. It was also found that about 20 percent of mothers around the world had low levels of human milk oligosaccharide by maternal heredity and even some mothers can't release any HMOs containing fucose with genetic reason. Scholars say this prevents the baby from intaking fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide and interferes with the formation of immune glycans made from the "fucose" component of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide, which in turn adversely affects intestinal health and immunity.
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